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Page history last edited by agario unblocked 4 years, 4 months ago








     Fossil of Bacteria

                Source: University of California Museum of Palentology, http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/bacteriafr.htmlv






It is important to put the discussion on Leuconostoc mesenteroides, one species of bacteria, in context.  This will be done by first providing general information on bacteria.  With more information, a better idea of the significance of bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides’ role, and the importance that they all play in our lives will be provided.



Bacteria are ubiquitous – they are found the world over in environments mild, moderate and harsh.  They are found in environments from deserts to the depths of oceans.  They have an extensive geologic record.  Certain fossils, for example, are estimated to be almost 3.5 billion years old, dating back to the pre-Cambrian geologic age  




In comparison to organisms in the Plant and Animal Kingdoms, bacteria are considered to be more primitive.  As the figure below shows, their cells are less complex.






  Source: "Cell: typical cells." Online Art. Encyclopædia BritannicaOnline


School Edition. 13 Dec.  2008, http://school.eb.com/eb/art-102103






In 1674, bacteria were first identified by Antony von Leeuwenhoek.  His microscope was said to be not much more than a magnifying glass that he had made himself.  He would make more than 500 microscopes during his lifetime.



He was not rich and had no formal education.  Leeuwonhoek, however, was brilliant. He first called bacteria “animalcules.” He described bacteria as, “"an unbelievably great company of living animalcules, a-swimming more nimbly than any I had ever seen up to this time.  The biggest sort. . . bent their body into curves in going forwards. . . Moreover, the other animalcules were in such enormous numbers, that all the water . . seemed to be alive."  Leeuwenhoek established a foundation on which famed scientists Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and others to this day are continuing to build.




Antony von Leeuwenhoek







Since Leeuwenhoek’s discovery, scientists have learned much more about bacteria.  Some bacteria, such as, Vibrio cholerae, are pathogens.  Pathogens cause illness and sometimes death.  Vibrio  cholerae cause cholera, an illness that has killed millions.  Patients develop intense diarrhea, vomiting, fluid loss and dehydration in addition to other symptoms.  Usually, they live in areas where sanitation, sewage, and drinking water conditions are poor.  The picture below shows the disease’s effects in Rawanda, Africa.



Cholera Victims in Rawanda





Source: Cholera." Encyclopedia Britannica. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://school.eb.com/eb/


 article-9082306?query=cholera&ct=>.©Peter Turnley/Corbis



          Bacteria that are pathogens can do significant harm.  That is only one part of the story.  Human life as we know it would not be possible without bacteria.  Bacteria benefit man in many ways.  Some of the more important ways are discussed below:




Decomposition and Carbon Cycling



One of bacteria’s major functions is to decompose dead plants and animals.  As decomposition proceeds, carbon dioxide is released into the environment.  The figure below illustrates how carbon is cycled throughout the environment, and it shows the role that bacteria play.






Carbon Cycle






Source:  Carbon Cycle." Encyclopedia Britannica. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://school.eb.com/









Nitrogen Cycling



Nitrogen is also critical to human life.  Nitrogen cannot be used by plants in the form in which it occurs in the atmosphere.   One of nature’s responses to this is bacteria that are able to convert nitrogen from the air.  They convert it into inorganic nitrogen compounds that plants can use.  The figure below shows the bacteria, Rhizobium leguminosarum, fixing nitrogen in the soil.




Nitrogen Fixation






Source: "Rhizobium." Online Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Online School Edition. 13 Dec.  2008 <http://school.eb.com/eb/art-19576>            



 As bacteria fixes nitrogen, it is actually being part of the nitrogen cycle, as illustrated below.



Nitrogen Cycle







Source: "Nitrogen Cycle." Encyclopedia Britannica. 11 Dec. 2008 <http://school.eb.com/eb/article-9055948>.






In addition to carbon and nitrogen cycling, bacteria play important beneficial roles in other areas.  These include in the food industry through such processes as fermenting and pickling; manufacture of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals and for biotechnology uses; and digestion in animals including humans.  






Leuconostoc mesenteroides: A Study





So far, the introduction provided historical and background information on bacteria in general. This report will now focus on Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a bacteria identified as early as the nineteenth century.  Early on, people noticed the rotting of  tomatoes that were recently picked in Mexico and California, a consequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides.  Famed scientist, Louis Pasteur, discussed the probable role of this bacteria in 1861 when he was making observations about a slime that tended to form on sugar cane.  Others who worked on the bacteria included Russian scientistTsenkovoskii.



Although this particular species is now referred to as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, it is not the only name that this species has had.  Named in the nineteenth century in 1878, Leuconostoc mesenteroides has had synonyms including Betacoccus arabinosaceus and Ascococcus mesenteroides




Comments (7)

gmgilmore said

at 8:33 am on Dec 14, 2008

The colors distract from the content.

gmgilmore said

at 8:35 am on Dec 14, 2008

I'll fix the formatting issues.

Michelle said

at 8:45 am on Dec 14, 2008

but the colors make it more appealing

Michelle said

at 8:57 am on Dec 14, 2008

also, another one of your pictures isn't showing up

gmgilmore said

at 9:07 am on Dec 14, 2008

The colors and random font changes distract make the wiki look unprofessional and distract from what is important, the content.

Michelle said

at 9:09 am on Dec 14, 2008

alright alright
but remember ms tucker likes pretty, decorative things
so dont make the whole thing boring black and white
and will you add a background? only the person who made the site can

agario unblocked said

at 5:24 pm on Apr 25, 2020


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